In the pregnant woman and in the period of breastfeeding there is a change in the requirements of energy, proteins, vitamins, and minerals, aimed at optimal fetal development and the subsequent production of between 500-700 cm3 milk/day of high energy value and micronutrients. It has been calculated that for the same physical activity it would be necessary to increase approximately 300 Kilocalories (Kcal) per day during the second and third trimesters and 500 Kcal/day during lactation.
This would mean a weight gain of about 12-13 kg during pregnancy, recovering the pre-pregnancy weight approximately 6 months after delivery. If the maternal diet does not provide the necessary nutrients and energy, they will be captured from the maternal reserves protecting fetal growth and development. On the contrary, an excessive contribution will suppose the storage in the form of maternal fatty tissue. The dietary objectives are similar to those recommended to the general population:
- Decrease the percentage of energy provided in the form of lipids.
- Decrease saturated fats.
- Decrease cholesterol
- Decrease the contribution of carbohydrates of rapid use.
- Increase the percentage of vitamins and minerals.
A healthy diet is based primarily on increasing the number of cereals, fruits, vegetables, tubers, vegetables, and legumes. The consumption of oils and fats, especially of animal origin, should be limited, with an important supply of saturated fats. It seems advisable to have five meals throughout the day, breakfast (20 percent), lunch (20 percent), lunch (30 percent), snack (10 percent) and dinner (30 percent), and can be suppressed lunch and snack according to the customs of each pregnancy. The preparation of certain foods is often an important point in a balanced, healthy diet. It is recommended to consume grilled or boiled meat or fish. It is important to control the amount of oil that is used when spicing food,
Need for pharmacological supplementation
Iron deficits and dietary folates condition that the consumption of these elements during pregnancy is greater than the intake. The clinical effect is variable depending on the body’s reserves and different in each individual.